exchanges between pilots and controllers, although neither side reports anything wrong with the radios.
Noise can disrupt face-to-face and telephone conversation, and the enjoyment of radio and television in the home. It can also disrupt effective communication between teachers and pupils in schools, and can cause fatigue and vocal strain in those who need to communicate in spite of the noise. Interference with communication has proved to be one of the most important components of noise-related annoyance.
Interference with speech communication and other sounds is one of the most salient components of noise-induced annoyance. The resulting disruption can constitute anything from an annoyance to a serious safety hazard, depending on the circumstance.
Criteria for determining acceptable background levels in rooms have also been expanded and refined, and progress has been made on the development of effective acoustic warning signals.
It is now dear that hearing protection devices can interfere with the perception of speech and warning signals, especially when the listener is hearing impaired, both talker and listener wear the devices, and when wearers attempt to locate a signal's source.
Noise can interfere with the educational process, and the result has been dubbed "jet-pause teaching" around some of the nation's noisier airports, but railroad and traffic noise can also produce scholastic decrements.
2.3 Sleep Disturbance
Noise is one of the most common forms of sleep disturbance, and sleep disturbance is a critical component of noise-related annoyance. A study used by EPA in preparing the Levels Document showed that sleep interference was the most frequently cited activity disrupted by surface vehicle noise
(BBN, 1971). Aircraft none can also cause sleep disruption, especially in recent years with the escalation of nighttime operations by the air cargo industry. When sleep disruption becomes chronic, its adverse effects on health and well-being are well-known.
Noise can cause the sleeper to awaken repeatedly and to report poor sleep quality the next day, but noise can also produce reactions of which the individual is unaware. These reactions include changes from heavier to lighter stages of sleep, reductions in "rapid eye movement" sleep, increases in body movements during the night, changes in cardiovascular responses, and mood changes and performance decrements the next day, with the possibility of more serious effects on health and well-being if it continues over long periods.
2.4 Noise Influence on Health
Noise has been implicated in the development or exacerbation of a variety of health problems, ranging from hypertension to psychosis. Some of these findings are based on carefully controlled laboratory or field research, but many others are the products of studies that have been severely criticized by the research community. In either case, obtaining valid data can be very difficult because of the myriad of intervening variables that must be controlled, such as age, selection bias, preexisting health conditions, diet, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, socioeconomic status, exposure to other agents, and environmental and social stressors.
Additional difficulties lie in the interpretation of the findings, especially those involving acute effects.
Loud sounds can cause an arousal response in which a series of reactions occur in the body. Adrenalin is released into the bloodstream; heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration tend to increase; gastrointestinal motility is inhibited; peripheral blood vessels constrict; and muscles tense. Even though noise may have no relationship to danger, the body will respond automatically to noise as a warning signal.
3 Noise Sources
All noise emanates from unsteadiness - time dependence in the flow. In aircraft engines there are three main sources of unsteadiness: motion of the blading relative to the observer, which if supersonic can give rise to propagation of a sequence of weak shocks, leading to the "buzz saw" noise of high-bypass turbofans; motion of one set of blades relative to another, leading to a pure-tome sound (like that from siren) which was dominant on approach in early turbojets; and turbulence or other fluid instabilities, which can lead to radiation of sound either through interaction with the turbomachine blading or other surfaces or from the fluid fluctuations themselves, as in jet noise.
3.1 Jet Noise
When fluid issues as a jet into a stagnant or more slowly moving background fluid, the shear between the moving and stationary fluids results in a fluid-mechanical instability that causes the interface to break up into vortical structures as indicated in Fig. 3.1. The vortices travel downstream at a velocity which is between those of the high and low speed flows, and the characteristics of the noise generated by the jet depend on whether this propagation velocity is subsonic or supersonic with respect to the external flow. We consider first the case where it is subsonic, as is certainly the case for subsonic jets.
Figure 3.1 A subsonic jet mixing with ambient air, showing the mixing layer followed by the fully developed jet.
For the subsonic jets the turbulence in the jet can be viewed as a distribution of quadrupoles.
3.2 Turbomachinery Noise
Turbomachinery generates noise by producing time-dependent pressure fluctuations, which can be thought of in first approximation as dipoles since they result from fluctuations in force on the blades or from passage of lifting blades past the observer.
It would appear at first that compressors or fans should not radiate sound due to blade motion unless the blade tip speed is supersonic, but even low-speed turbomachines do in fact produce a great deal of noise at the blade passing frequencies.
4 Noise Measurement and Rules
Human response sets the limits on aircraft engine noise. Although the logarithmic relationship represented by the scale of decibels is a first approximation to human perception of noise levels, it is not nearly quantitative enough for either systems optimization or regulation. Much effort has gone into the development of quantitative indices of noise.
4.1 Noise Effectiveness Forecast (NEF)
It is not the noise output of an aircraft per se that raises objections from the neighborhood of a major airport, but the total noise impact of the airport's operations, which depends on take-off patterns, frequencies of operation at different times of the day, population densities, and a host of less obvious things. There have been proposals to limit the total noise impact of airports, and in effect legal actions have done so for the most heavily used ones.
One widely accepted measure of noise impact is the Noise
Effectiveness Forecast (NEF), which is arrived at as follows for any location near an airport:
1. For each event, compute the Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) by the methods of ICAO Annex 16, as described below.
2. For events occurring between 10 PM and 7 AM, add 10 to the EPNdB.
3. Then NEF = , where the sum is taken over all events in a 24-hour period. A little ciphering will show that this last calculation is equivalent to adding the products of sound intensity times time for all events, then taking the dB equivalent of this. The subtractor 82 is arbitrary.
4.2 Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL)
The perceived noisiness of an aircraft flyover depends on the frequency content, relative to the ear's response, and on the duration. The perceived noisiness is measured in NOYs (unit of perceived noisiness) and is plotted as a function of sound pressure level and frequency for random noise in Fig. 4.1.
Figure 4.1 Perceived noisiness as a function of frequency and sound pressure level
Pure tones (frequencies with pressure levels much higher than that of the neighboring random noise in the sound spectrum) are judged to be more annoying than an equal sound pressure in random noise, so a "tone correction" is added to their perceived noise level. A "duration correction" represents the idea that the total noise impact depends on the integral of sound intensity over time for a given event.
The 24 one-third octave bands of sound pressure