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ѡ

ѡ 2 I. 3 II. ѡ Ӫ 9 III. ѽ 12 IV. Ǭ ڿ 14 V. ūԿѽ 16 ᬽѡ 18 ߫ 19

ѡ

ƫӡ Ӫ ߫ Ἣԫѽ ߻ ѵ὿ӫᡡ
Ѫѡ, ӿ߬ , ӫ ѡ
߬ 񡿬 ߽Ҫڿ (Ӫ ) ӫѡ
ԫ ᵿ ߻ ѵ , ߫ԡ ᡡټ
߫Ѽټ (ᡫڿߴ ߿ ԫ ᡿ᡡټ)
һ ԫ ԫӡ ١. ѽ - ߫ ᡿ һ ѡ
񡫮 ѡѮ Ҫ ٴ ١ ѡ
ԫ ѡѡ ߻ ӫ 񽫪ѡ.

ū ӿ߬ ԫӫ Ҽߴ ᡿ ӿӫᡡ ѡ, ԫ Ӽ ᬵӡ
ԫӿ () ᡿ѡ ѡ. Կ ի Ὣ-, ߬ 񡿬, ߻ үڿ
߫ѡ, ѡᡡ . ߫ ѽ ١
ݬ ᬵӡ ( ᡿) ᡫߴ
ѽ ߫ѡ , ᡿ѡ
ѡ ( ԡ) - ߬ټ Ὣ, ԫٮ ԡ ѡѪ, Ӽ. ج߬
Ѭ ᬫ ẽ ߫ԫ ԫ, ԫ Ӫ, ᡿Ѽ ᬵӡ , ߫ߴ ޿ѡ ѽ 񫽪
ѿԿӫ ѡ ӿٽ, ԫ ߴ ߫ԡ
ᡡ ᬵἿ ի, һ ߻ ѽѡ ѡ ᬿ ẫ ߴ ѽү ߫ѡ
ӿ߬ . Ӫ ԫټ իټ Ὣ ӿߴ
ԫӿ () ᡿ѡ ѡ, ԫ
ѫի񿼫 ߻ ѽѡ Ѯ Կ ӿٽ Ѫ ԡἿ.
ᬫ ߽ ӫի ڿ᡿ . ӿ ᵿ
ӿ ի ߴ ѡѪ,
Ӽ, ᬪ ѿ Ѽѡ.

ū ԡѡ Ѽ Ӫ ( ߬ Ѽ,
ѽ) ѡ Ӫ һ ߫ѽἿ
߫߻ ѽ, Ѽѡ ߴ ټ ߫ѡἿ ѡ ѬѼ ի. ү
ѬԿ (߫) ߬, ӿ߬ ,
ԫ ѽ ᡿ᵿ, ڿ ԫү ӿٽ Ӫ ӫ߬ ߿ ӫ.

I

ҡ ԫӡ Ӫ ᡿ ѡẫ᡿
ݬ߬. ѬԿ ٻ ѡ ݬ߬ ҡ ѽ
ӿ߬-᡿ᵿ ѻ ѡ. ٮ
᡿ᵿ- Ӽ ѽ ߻ ޡ ѴѽԿ
ԫӡ Ӫ. ūԫ ߡ Կߴ ԫ ӫ. ԫ Ѽ ڿߴ ߴ
50 ԫӡ Ӫ ڿ ӫԫ 10 ӿ 񫽽ӫ, ԫ
߫ ӿѽ 25% Ὣ ᵿ ӫҬ.
὿ߴ ӫҬ Կ 160 ῼѡ᡿. Ѯ Ҫ ߫
߫ԡ Ӫ, ԫ ޿ - ԫӡ. 1992 ڿ
Ѽ ѽ ߫ 1.5% . ߡ ѡ ݬ߻ ԫ, ڿ
ӫ Ӫ 1991 ԫ ԫ 󡴽ߴ 40 . Ѯ. ū ӫټ , ѡ , ޿ Ӫ Ѭ Ѫ Ѽ ѡټ ( ߬ѡѼ ߽ѡԿ) Ѽ ѡټ . Ӫ
ԫ, իԴ ټ, ӫ
ѡ . ١ޡ Ӫ ᬫ-ԫ ѻ ԫӿ. 佴 ԫ, ԫ
ߴ Կ ߻ ᡡ ӿ , Ӫ ѡ
󫿼 Ѽ. ԫ ӫߴ, ԡԿ, Ѽѡ ߻ Կ߬ , ԫ ߽ ѻ ӿ,
᡿ᵿ- Ӽ ߫᡿ Ӫ. ѽ ԡٮ
Ὣٮ ߬ ߻ ѵӫᡡ Ӫ ӿߴ Ὣ
ӿԿ, իԴ ѿԡ, ԫ ߽ - ԡ ᡿ᵿ-
Ӽ, ѽ Ẽӫ ᡴԫԿ Ѽ
իѡ ӫ.

Ļ ѪѡѼ ѡ ի Կ Ӫ ѽ
ӿ ߫᡿ ߫ ԫӡ Ӫ ɴ᡿ Ӽ ᬵӫ Ԭԫ Կ . ٽ ٻ ߬
ԿѼ ᬵ `ѽ, ԫ
١, ᬿ ߽ . ѡ ߽ , ӿ
ᡫѡ Ӫ, ټ ߻ ӫѡټ ὿ Ӽ: ԫӿ
() ᡿ѡ ѡ ᬵӡ ԫ
Կ . ᬿ ѽ ѡ ӿٽ, ѯ Ӭ ѡٮ
߬ .

Ѽ ѡ ߫ ѽ ١ ݬ, ԡԿ , 󽴯ڿߴ Ὣ ᡿ᵿ Ӫ ѽ, ԫ Ӫ ԫ Ѽ ߡ󡫼 ҡү ߻ ӿٽ
Ѫѡ, Կ ӿԿ ӻ ᵿ Ҭӫ,
ԫ Կ ᡿ѡ ѡ ԡ߿ѽ
ޫ ߽ ѡ. ӿѼ, ӿѽ ѽ
᡿ᵿ, ᬿ Ӫ ѯ Ѭ߬ ү үߴ
ѡټ Ὣټ Ἷ. ٮ ߴ ټ Ӫѡ, ԫ Ӫ 񫽪 Կ Ѯ ݬ ԫ Ѻԫټ, Ἣһ Ѽټ
ӿԿѼ, ԫӫ ߻ Ἣ߿ӫ᡿. ӿԿѼ ᬫ " ԫӡ Ӫ Ӫ ԫ" ߻ ӿٽٮ ѴѽԿ, ѻ ѡ ᡡ ᡿ᵿѮ Ӫ ԫ
(.3 .2), ߴ ѽټ. ᬫ ᵿ ѽ Ӫ, 󫽴ڿ ߬ӿ ӫ ٴ ١
ѡ, ԫ ӿٽ ԫ ߽ ߽ ߡѡ ӪѬ
ԫ ԫ, ԫ ԫ ӿѽѮ ᪡ ٪ ԫ ߿Ҽ ӿٽ, ѽ , ԫ
߻ ҡӫ. ӿ ӿٽԿ Ӵ ߽
᡿ ٻ ѡ ԫ , ѡ ѽ
ԫ Ѯ Ὣ ԫ ѡ ټ ԫ
߽, ѽ Ӫ Ѭ὿ ѽѡ
Ѽ ԫ ᵿ. ԫ Ὣ Ἣ ạѡ Ӫ - Ѭ ӿٽ ѽѡ ԫӫӫ. ԫ , ߽ ӿٽ Ӫ ӫ ӫ߽ ի ᵿ, ԫ ߽ Ӫ ߿
߫ѡ ѽ ԫ , ԫ ԫ ӿ
Ἷ ӿѽ - ӫ, , ᬽ, ߫󽴯ڿ ٮ
ѽԿ ߫. ū , ԫ ߫ ٿ
ѽ ѡ. Ἣ Ӫ ѽ Ὣ ԡ ѻ ѡ ߼߽ѡټ, ѡ Ӫ, ԫ ߽ ѽ, 󽴯ڿߴ
Ѽѡ ߬ 񡿬Ἷ, Ѭ὿ ѡ Ҽ Ӽ, ӿԫ ߫ѡ, - ڿ. ū ߫ԡ ӫ ڿ ѽ-߬ٮ , ٮ ѽԿ
Ѻ ߫ѡү ӿٽ. ѽ ѡ.
ūԫ Ѭ߬ ѽ Ӫ ѽ ߫
߫ 񡿬 - ԫ ߫ ӫ ի ӿٽ ѡ
ԫ ᵿ ټ . ᪡ ᬪ , ԫ Ӫ ӿ߬ ӿ
񫽪 ԫ Ҫ Ѽ ߫ѡ ѡ. ѡ ԫ ߿ӫᡫ ᬫ ԫӡ Ӫ. ӿ ԫ իԴ ԫ, ԫ
ԫ. Կ Ӫ ߫ѡ ԫ
߿ 󬽯ѡ ߫ 񡫮 ڿ .
Ǽӿ߬ ߽ѽ ԫ Ӫ ѡ Ѯټ 񿫡, ԫٮ ߡӴѡ, ѽ
Ѯ, , : ԫ, ٿ. ӫԿ󡫼 ߽ Ӫ " Ҫ"
Ѽ, Ѯ , Ѯ . ݻ ᡫѡ Ӫ ߬ ٺ ߫ѡ . ߽ѡ ѽ Ӫ, ԫ޿
Ӫټ ԫӫ, ӿӫ὿ ᡿ѡ
ѡ. ӫ ѡᵿ Ӫ ѽ ߫ ӫߴ ӫԫ
߻ ѵ὿ᵿ, ҡٮ ԫ ѽ ӫ޽. һ
һ Ѯ޿ Ӫ ѽ Ҫ ᬵӡ , ӿѡ
Ԭԫ Կ . ᬫ ߽, ӿ߬ Ӽ ᬵӡټ, ݬ߬ ߫Ӫ᡿ ᡫ󿽿
Ѭ߬. ߡ᡿ , ԫ Ѯ ѡٮ
ի 󫽯 Ӫ Ҭ, , ѡ, ᡡ
ѡ. Ὣ ԫ - ߻ ޡ Կ ߻ ѵ὿ӫᡡ Ӫ ѫ᡿Ѽ ҡ ԫ. ѡ Ӫ ӿ߬ ߬ߴ : , ᡡ ѡἿ-ԡἿ ;
ӫҬ (߽), ߫ᡡ ԡἿ Ӫ ӿ ѴѽԿ;
ѡ ի: Ѫ 󺡫߫ ѡ-ԡ, ӫ Ӫ
ᵿ, Ѽ ߽, ѡ, ѪѮ
ԿѽѮ; ѡѪ Ӽ, ӿѡ ߫ѡٮ .

ū ԫ, Ӫ ᡿ (ѡ) ѡ-ԡ , ԫӫ ᬵӡ ,
ԫӿ ᡿ѡ ѡ ߽ ᵿ Ѫѡ ߴ ߫ѡ Ӽ Ѻ 󫺡ѡ.

ӿ Ѫѡ ᬵӡ ԫ Կ
Ѯ Կߴ ԫԿ ᬵ ߽ ᵿ
. ߫ԡ ӫ ѽ ӿ ߫᡿ Ӫ
ԫӿ ѡٮ , ԫ ӫ
ߴ ߼ѡ ѽѮ

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