загрузка...

трусы женские
загрузка...
Реферати » Топіки з англійської мови » Replacement Housing (Приміщення для ремонтного молодняка)

Replacement Housing (Приміщення для ремонтного молодняка)

Кубанський державний аграрний університет

Кафедра іноземних мов

Реферат на тему:

«Replacement Housing.»

(«Приміщення для ремонтного молодняку» )

Підготував: студент групи СТ-21

Деревенець Ф. Н.

Краснодар, 1998

Contents

Management factors. Affecting design 4


Facility management 5


Herd size and makeup 5


Management groups 6


Resting space 7


Feeding and watering space 7


Handling and treatment facilities 8


Prep room 8


Feed and bedding storage 8


Cold housing 11


Warm housing 11


Calf housing (up to weaning) 11

Hutches in Cold Housing 12

Hutch management 13
Individual Pen in Cold Housing 13
Individual Stall in Warm Housing 13
Transition housing (3-5 months) 15
Calf Shelter or Super Hutch 17

Transition Barn 17

Calf Barn 18

Heifer housing (6-24 months) 19

Freestall Housing 20

Two-row freestall barn 20

Two-row graduated freestall barn 21

Two-row gated freestall 22

Drive-through gated freestall 24

Bedded Pack 24


Counter-sloped barn 24


Optional outside lots 25


Фактори управління. Вплив на проект. 27


Засоби управління 28


Розміри і структура стада. 28


Управління групами 30


Приміщення для відпочинку 31


Простір для годування 31


Обробка й засоби обробки 32


Підготовче приміщення 32


Зберігання корму і підстилок 32


Холодна приміщення 34


тепле приміщення 35


Приміщення для телят (аж до відлучення) 36

Клітини в холодному приміщенні 36

Управління клітинами 36
Індивідуальні загони в холодному приміщенні 37
Індивідуальне стійло в теплому приміщенні 37
Перехідний приміщення (3-5 місяців) 39
Укриття для теляти або першокласна клітина 41
Перехідний сарай 42
Сарай для телят 44
Приміщення для нетелей (6-24 місяців) 44

боксового приміщення 45

Дворядний боксовий сарай 45
Дворядний диференційований боксовий сарай 46
Дворядний закривається бокс 47
Наскрізний закривається бокс 48

Підстилковий вузол 48


Зустрічно-похилий сарай 49


Додатковий зовнішній ділянку 51

As replacement heifers grow, their needs change. This includes a change in needed physical environment. When a heifer is young, it is physically separated from other animals to minimize the risk of disease. As it grows, it is grouped with other animals to increase resistance to disease and prepare the animal for the breeding herd. Eventually the animal enters the breeding herd and finally the milking herd.

Each stage of production requires housing to meet the physical needs of the animal.

Management factors. Affecting design

House replacement animals in separate facilities away from the milking herd to foster a healthy environment for each group. Well-designed and properly-managed replacement animal housing allows the ability to adopt the best management practices currently recommended. Plan space, equipment, environment, rations and care to meet the needs of each group. Manage replacements in groups according to their specific requirements. Facility design should allow for easy implementation of the management plan for each group. When planning replacement animal housing, provide:

> Adequate resting and exercise space.

> Covered, dry and draft-free resting area.

> Good quality fresh air.

> Adequate space for feed and water.

> Space to group animals by size or age.

> Clean lots to maintain sanitary conditions.

> Isolation area for sick animals.

> Observation area for animals.

> Treatment facilities.

> Space for handling and restraint of animals.

Poorly planned or improperly managed animal housing increases the risk of disease or injury. High humidities are especially detrimental to animal health. Pneumonia, scours and other diseases can permanently damage vital body organs and reduce milk producing potential of an animal. Calves and heifers raised in a poor environment may never reach their full genetic potential for milk production.

Facility management

For healthy, high producing replacement animals, provide high quality housing and a management plan that addresses animals 'needs. Good management, understanding what to do and then doing it on schedule, is important to the success of any housing system. Sanitation, stall maintenance, bedding, ventilation control, feeding, herd health, treatment and close observation are all important management practices. Young animals may need training and / or time to get accustomed to using freestalls. Daily or routine chores such as feeding, stall maintenance or manure removal should be made as convenient as possible to make sure they are accomplished in a timely manner.

Herd size and makeup

Herd size can mean either the number of cows actually milking or mature cows both dry and milking. In this handbook, the herd size is the number of mature cows.

Typical herd makeup, assuming uniform calving year-round, is given in
Table 1. The numbers in the table reflect no culling of heifers or calves.
Use this table to determine housing needed for each management group.
Provide:

> Calf housing (0-2 months).

> Transition housing (3-5 months).

> Heifer housing:

V 6-8 months

V 9-12 months

V 13-15 months (breeding age)

V 16-24 months

The number of replacement animals to be housed depends on the number of milking cows and bred heifers . As herd size increases, so does number of replacements. Increasing herd size without expanding facilities for replacements results in crowding which can increase injury, disease transmission, and lower growth rates.

Table 1. Typical management categories of a herd. [1]

This table is only a management guideline. These are categories and not group size

| Herd size = total cows | 75 | 100 | 250 | 400 |
| Calves and heifers | 75 | 100 | 250 | 400 |
| 0-2 months, 150 lb | 6 | 8 | 20 | 32 |
| 3-5 months, 250 lb | 9 | 12 | 30 | 48 |
| 6-8 months, 400 lb | 9 | 12 | 30 | 48 |
| 9-12 months, 600 lb | 14 | 18 | 45 | 72 |
| 13-15 months, 800 lb | 9 | 12 | 30 | 48 |
| 16-24 months, 1,000 lb | 29 | 38 | 95 | 152 |
| Dry cows | 13 | 17 | 43 | 68 |
| Transition (first 4-14 days) | 0-4 | 1-5 | 4-9 | 5-16 |
| Next 40 days | 8-9 | 11-12 | 28-30 | 45-48 |
| (Divide in 2 groups) | | | | |
| Close-up | 2-5 | 3-6 | 8-15 | 16-24 |
| (2-3 weeks prepartum) | | | | |
| Maternity (individual pens) | 3-5 | 4-6 | 10-16 | 16-24 |
| Fresh cows | 1-3 | 1-4 | 3-10 | 4-12 |
| (from 0-7 days postpartum) | | | | |
| Two-years-old (305 days) [2] | 18-24 | 26-30 | 65-75 | 104-120 |
| Three years and older (305 | 44 | 58 | 145 | 232 |
| days) b | 15-18 | 20-24 | 50-60 | 80-96 |
| High producers | | | | |
| (120 days or less) | 12-15 | 16-20 | 40-50 | 60-72 |
| Medium producers | 12-15 | 16-20 | 40-50 | 60-72 |
| Low producers | | | | |
| Sick cows | 0-4 | 0-5 | 0-13 | 0-20 |

Management groups

Separating replacement animals into groups according to age, size or special management needs allows each group to be treated according to its needs. Plan building space and layout for these groups of animals using
Tables 2 and 3. More than one group can be housed in the same building, but allow for managing each group separately. In larger herds, separate facilities may be provided for each group. Some of the benefits of managing animals in groups are:

> Healthier animals by minimizing the risk of transmitting disease to younger animals.

> Good feed efficiency by reducing competition for feed.

> Calving at proper weight and size at 24 months.

> Feed handling ease, and proper diets according to age.

> Manure handling ease.

> Animal observation and handling ease for breeding, treatment and grouping.

> Proper ventilation and environment.

> Proper resting space or freestall size.

Space requirements for a particular operation depend on the housing system chosen and how replacements move from the resting area to feed and to water and back again. Herd size and makeup are guides to estimating the space needed for resting, but alley size, water space and bunk space must also be considered to accommodate the animals and provide an animal friendly environment.

Provide separate areas for resting and feeding. Feeding in resting areas increases manure accumulation and more bedding is required to keep animals clean and dry.

Resting space

Adequate resting space for management groups is a key factor in efficient growth. Required space for different housing alternatives including bedded resting areas, self-cleaning resting areas (solid, sloped floors) and freestalls are shown in Tables 3 and 4.

Feeding and

Сторінки: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
 
Подібні реферати:
About animals
Про тварин.
Pets
Домашні тварини.
Animals need help. Earth is in danger
Жіовтние потребують допомоги. Земля в небезпеці.
Pets in Britain
Домашні тварини в Британії.
Hepatitis A Prevention
. Children in states and countries with constant increased rates of hepatitis A. County and state health departments can tell you whether your areas have these higher hepatitis A rates.
The enviromental problems which concern the Mankind
I'm going to speak about some kinds of pollution, for example air pollution or acid rain, water pollution. Now different kinds of trees, many of the animals, birds, fish are in serious danger. What should gove
Коала (дикі тварини Австралії)
At a Koala a pear-shaped body, large round head with small eyes and large black nose. The tail at a Koala is not. The Koala is covered with thick, strong gray fur, because of which for them hunt. On legs the Ko
Захист навколишнього середовища / english /
Забруднення повітря. Шкідливі викиди автотранспорту. Глобальне потепління. Забрудненість морів і океанів. Способи захисту навколишнього середовища.
Alcohol and the Workplace
Алкоголь і робоче місце.
The protection of the environment
Захист навколишнього природного середовища.
The cloning
Клонування.
Space exploration
Дослідження космосу.
The Workplace Ergonomics Program / Eng. /
Програми щодо поліпшення стану умов роботи службовців, підвищення продуктивності праці. Мінімізація стресових ситуацій.
Ecology
We live on a very beautiful planet - on the Earth. Our planet has very rich resources: the bright blue of the sky, fresh, crystal-clear mountain lake water, the rich green of the mountains slopes, wild flower,
4 Топіка з іноземної мови english
Російська життя країни. Англійська сільська місцевість. Сільська місцевість. Зберігання чистого довкілля.
Тварини / english /
Анатомія тварин. Різноманітність видів. Тварини в людському суспільстві. Їх застосування в сільському господарстві та інших областях.
Alaska's Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Жива природа Штату Аляска н ...
"Alaska's mountains rise like walls; four seas and unimaginable distances form a mighty moat; and a patchwork of national parks and wildlife refuges protects more than a third of the state. It's a fortress for
The British Press
Британська преса.
Ecological problems
Проблеми екології.
American economy
Економіка США.
загрузка...
ur.co.ua

енциклопедія  з сиру  аджапсандалі  ананаси  узвар