трусы женские



The Brezhnev era was later dubbed the "period of stagnation." as we all know, but that does not mean that there was no economic growth under that leader. On the contrary, there was considerable development, especially in the first half of his reign. The Soviet Union was regularly beating the most advanced countries of the world in terms of annual growth rate.
Between 1964 and 1981, production of steel in the Soviet Union increased from 85 million tonnes to 149 million, topping US output. Coal output beat the American production of 500 million tonnes a year by half as much again.
In fifteen years, the Soviet Union doubled its oil production, becoming the world's largest producer of oil. There were similar developments in the other sectors, even in agriculture, where increased investment and higher prices of agricultural produce introduced by the 1965 Central Committee plenum made the Soviet Union the world's biggest producer of wheat.
But all these beautiful figures were made meaningless by the simple fact that the share of consumer goods in the overall production was constantly falling. That meant that the system favored production for production's sake, its capacity either channeled into the military sphere or simply wasted through the system's internal defects like poor organization, lack of incentives for the workers, rejection of scientific and technological innovations, etc. All those silly pochins and "socialist competitions" could not obstruct the inexorable working of economic laws: No consumer goods - no money for the budget - no investment-no progress or growth - inevitable crisis as demand for consumer goods grows and supply shrinks.
Apart from crises, the Soviet economy produced even more inflammable material - the Soviet intelligentsia. The Party's avowed goal was still the
Khrushchevian motto - to catch up with the West in every sphere of
"material and spiritual production." and this could not be achieved without major breakthroughs in science and education. So in the years of
Brezhnevite "stagnation." the number of people with a higher education more than doubled. The swelling intelligentsia formed, in fact, a new class that bitterly resented its designation in the official ideology as a prosloika, a rather derogatory term meaning something like a "thin layer between two masses", the masses in question being the urban and rural workers.
^ It was, of course, more than the mere designation that the intelligentsia resented. First, it was only too well aware that it was grossly underpaid, getting a mere fraction of what their counterparts in the West were earning. Speaking for oneself, I was one of the very few best paid. top professional translators in Moscow doing translations from
Russian into English for about a dozen publishing houses, but I calculated that I was being paid roughly the sum that a typist in the United States was getting, page per page. And I lived about ten times better than some m.n.s. or miadshiy nauchnyi sotrudnik "junior research fellow" getting 105 rubles a month (the trouble of course was that one couldn't correlate this sum with any known currency, as the official $1=64 kopecks rate was patently something from beyond the looking-glass).
Second, the nature of the intelligentsia's occupations made it keenly sensitive to the prevailing stringent curbs on the freedom of intellectual pursuits, especially in the humanities, where any deviation, real or imaginary, from neo-Stalinist ideological dogma was punished swiftly and ruthlessly. That was why most talented people went into the natural sciences or mathematics, where they could be as free-thinking as they wished in their quest for eternal truths. This elicited a couple of puzzled lines from the Soviet poet Boris Slutsky, which instantly became famous:
Chto-to fiziki v pochyote,//Chto-to liriki v zagone... "Curiously, physicists are in the limelight and lyricists are eclipsed..." Sure they were eclipsed - who wanted to hear their bravura lies or piteous whining?
There were, however, some "lyricists" whom everybody wanted to hear as they expressed the intelligentsia's most hidden attitudes and aspirations.
True, they had to resort to Aesopean language, like the Strugatsky brothers: They wrote ostensibly science fiction, but anyone with an ounce of intelligence could see it for what it was - social criticism and social satire. You take their novel "Monday Begins on Saturday": The split between mindless bureaucracy and selfless intellectuals seeking for the truth just couldn't be made more graphic, despite the book's paraphernalia of magic and time trips. No wonder both "physicists" and "lyricists" literally fought in endless queues at book-shops over those slim volumes.
Paradoxically, the "physicists" were on the whole better protected from some of the iniquities of life under the Soviets precisely because of their role in the military-industrial complex - which was the prime cause of those iniquities.
The country's economy was geared, in accordance with the prevailing ideological doctrine of isolationism and confrontation with "world imperialism," to the production of ever more sophisticated weapons.
Sophisticated weapons could only be produced by sophisticated minds, as one could easily see both in real life and in films like the famous 1960s hit
"Nine Days of One Year." in which nuclear physicists discussed exactly this incongruity - that the scientific and technological progress was a byproduct of the development of lethal weapons in the course of the arms race between the imperialist and socialist "camps."
Those sophisticated minds could clearly see the obvious: That the country's socioeconomic system was basically flawed. They even had a handy methodological tool to describe the flaws: Marxism, Marxist Political
Economy included, was taught in every higher education establishment.
Anyone who had the least intellectual interest in these things and adequate intellectual equipment could describe in Marxist terms what had gone wrong with the slave-owning society, the feudal society, the bourgeois society:
They were "burst asunder" by internal contradictions between the
"productive forces" and "production relations" (especially those of property) (see esp. Chapter 32 of Marx's "Capital").
It was all too easy to see that, under Soviet socialism, the socialist
"production relations" were simply waiting to "burst asunder." being, in
Marxist terms, "a fetter on the mode of production" (op.cit). The lines from a popular song, Vsyo vokrug kolkhoznoye, vsyo vokrug moyo "Everything around is the collective farm's, everything around is mine" were often quoted, tongue in cheek, to justify common or garden stealing: Property that wasn't anyone's was everyone's, it aroused in people the worst, most predatory instincts, not those of a zealous owner eager to make that property flourish.
The intelligentsia could also see clearly, and discuss in nocturnal kitchen debates, that, while it was the carrier of economic, scientific, and every other kind of progress, it could do little to achieve that progress except bash its head against the double wall of the workers-and-peasants' state: the workers and peasants themselves, who couldn't care less about scientific, social, etc. progress, and the bureaucracy professing to represent and care for the interests of the workers and peasants but in actual fact caring for nothing but its own well-being - progress of any kind was definitely not among its priorities. "Stability" was, and under
Brezhnev it had all the "stability" it wanted. It practically wallowed in

This explains the fact that while self-avowed dissidents with a political agenda, people who wrote for underground publications, staged puny demonstrations and went to labor camps or mental homes for their sins were few and far between, practically the whole of the intelligentsia was tarred with the brush of dissent. Moreover, it wasn't just vague, general discontent with things as they were but a clear realization of the conditions under which the intelligentsia could play a role it wanted

Страницы: 1 2
Подобные рефераты:
The aim of this essay is to show how Josip Broz Tito created and maintained the socialist system in Yugoslavia, which was some kind of way between the Soviet socialism and Western capitalism. The main attentio
The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War
So how can a person who brutally killed a ten-year-old boy lead a normal life after coming back home? Killing children, knowing that anytime a bullet can hit you, knowing that no place is safe, can drive any s
The Problem of Holmelessness in Canada
Toronto is the most beautiful city I've ever seen. Canada has wonderful nature, all kinds of animals, kind and polite people. And it's really sad to see people who live in bus stops, dirty doorways or right ac
Политический лидер-Хосни Мубарак
For years of board Mubarak has recommended itself, if not as the big statesman, that, at least, as the sincere and reliable Arabian head. Can solve numerous problems of the country, he, nevertheless, uses the
In March 1947, the Truman Doctrine was announced. This was a dramatic departure from traditional US foreign, defense, and security policy. It was based on a view of international politics as a contest for worl
The Irish Question (Ирландский вопрос)
From 1972 onwards successive UK governments have tried to find a « political solution» to the Northern Irish problems, that is, a solution acceptable to most Catholics and most Protestants. Several devices have
Антитеррористическая информационная политика Российского государства
Цель работы - на основе анализа информационных проявлений терроризма определить проблемы, направления и механизмы реализации антитеррористической информационной политики российского государства.
Геополитические особенности взаимоотношений МЕРКОСУР, ЕС и НАФТА
Интеграционные процессы в мировой экономике и политике. Особенности взаимоотношений региональных организаций: ЕС, НАФТА, МЕРКОСУР.
Глобализация: смена политических акторов и типа управления
Глобализация в современном политологическом дискурсе.
Африканский союз. Проблемы региональной интеграции
Процессы региональной интеграции на африканском континенте. Проблемы региональной и международной интеграции Африки.
Американская идея
Истоки и смысл американской идеи. Стратегия США в переустройстве мира, или американская идея в действии.
Форма держави, форма державного правління, форма державного устрою.
Форма держави - це спосіб (порядок) організації і здійснення державної влади. Форма державного правління визначається порядком організації, структурою і взаємодією вищих державних органів влади і управління. Розрізняють дві основні форми державного правління: монархію і республіку. Форма державного устрою характеризує державу з точки зору її територіального поділу та відповідної організації державних органів. Державний устрій може проявлятися у простій або у складній формах.
Дискурсивный анализ массовой коммуникации как идеологический инструмент
В современной теории дискурса массовая коммуникация служит одним из привилегированных объектов анализа: производимые и транслируемые средствами массовой коммуникации послания практически идеально ложатся в схему дискурсивного акта.
Методологические проблемы регионализации
Методологические предпосылки исследования регионализма. Основания регионализации.
Терроризм и глобализация
Глобализация породила терроризм как глобальную угрозу и в то же время получила от него сокрушительный удар. Ощущение опасности, риска стало всеобщим и постоянным, в особенности в США, стране, прежде не знавшей серьезных угроз своему существованию.
Визуальные коммуникации в социально-политических процессах
Современный человек все плотнее окружен мультимедийными средствами, буквально срастаясь с ними в гибридные человеко-технические комплексы, со специфическим набором действий и функций, не типичных для людей не-технической цивилизации.
Праворадикальные партии и движения Европы в 90-е годы
В последнее время международные и отечественные средства массовой информации все более часто с волнением отмечают возросшую активность правых или, как их принято, называть в российских СМИ (что не совсем верно
Идентификация военного конфликта (методологические и теоретические ориентир ...
Военные конфликты становятся сегодня явлением, представляющим весьма серьезную опасность для человечества. Эта опасность определяется следующими моментами. Во-первых, такие конфликты приносят миллионы жертв, подрывают сами основы жизни народов.
Тенденции политического развития и современная демократия.
Что такое демократия? Большинство наших соотечественников и современников над этим, пожалуй, не задумывается, считая, что "и так все ясно".
Региональная фрагментация политической культуры населения Украины
Предмет исследования - региональная фрагментация политической культуры населения Украины и ее влияние на политический процесс.

енциклопедія  з сиру  аджапсандалі  ананаси  узвар